Time synchronization in internets
When you try to compare some files' timestamps or the contents of logfiles, which were generated on different
computers, you'll appreciate their time being synchronous. It's even better, if it matches the international atomic
On this page I give an overview over the tools and protocols commonly used for synchronizing times.
- The daytime protocol
- The time protocol
- The network time protocol (NTP)
- Further readings
- The simple network time protocol (SNTP)
- net time, w32time
- The SMB-protocol
- Under LanManager (net time)
- Under Linux (nettime)
- Other ways
- The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
- The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
- The internet Protocol (IP)
In 1983 the daytime protocol was specified as RFC867 . Today the daytime-server is built into inetd, listening on port 13 and telling the local time in
$ netcat hamster 13
Tue Sep 3 19:04:14 2002
Unfortunately it does not bind to a date format, so you have to agree upon a format before utilizing its service. Some
implemetations even lack a timezone, which leads to problems when entering DST. Since the minimal unit is a second, the
displayed time can differ from the real time as much as one second plus network delay.
The time protocol was published as RFC868 , in
order to simplify automated processings of times. Today the time-server is built into inetd, listening on port 37 and
telling the number of seconds that have passed since July 1st 1900 (0am, GMT). The deviants are the same as for the the
Here's how the query works in pratice:
$ netcat hamster 37 | od -t u1
0000000 193 31 128 156
The time server delivers a 4 byte word. Transforming to a number:
$ echo '156 + 128*256 + 31*256*256 + 193*256*256*256' | bc
Skipping 70 years (due to input range limitations of gnu date)
$ echo 3240067228 -2208988800 | bc
So what date is now, 1031078428 seconds after 1970?
$ date -d "1970-01-01 0:00:1031078428"
Tue Sep 3 19:40:28 CEST 2002
If you've got a newer (after 2003?) implementation of GNU date, use this syntax instead:
$ date -d "19700101 + 1031078428 seconds"
Tue Sep 3 19:40:28 CEST 2002
The most used tool for copying times over the time protocol is rdate, For example,
$ rdate -p hamster
Wed Sep 4 19:46:13 2002
shows you the time at the computer hamster. If you run it as root and without the -p parameter,
It will adopt that time to your local machine. Of course, you can have cron call this regularly.
It's bit of a problem with rdate, that it can easily spread false system times.
Better use the netdate tool, which first compares the times of of several time servers and
then adopts the one from the first of the largest group of hosts whose times agree with each other within a certain
$ netdate tcp hamster gate hera
hamster -0.738 Wed Sep 4 20:35:16.000
gate -0.742 Wed Sep 4 20:35:16.000
hera -1.479 Wed Sep 4 20:35:16.000
hamster -0.481 Wed Sep 4 20:35:17.000
Because time-servers send GMT-time, clients need to add the hours for their timezones and DST (if applicable)
themselves to get the local time.
Unfortunately there still are some time-clients out (e.g. embedded in card readers), which interpret the transmitted
time as local time. To work around this problem, I wrote a localtime-demon, which sends the server's local
time (incl. timezone/DST).
Download: localtimed [1 kB]
The NTP-protocol was invented by Professor Dr. David L. Mills in 1985. Today it is widely used in an revised version 3
( RFC1305 ). Today, there also is version 4,
which adds support for IPv6.
A NTP-client receives the time (incl. milliseconds) from several timeservers. After some inspection and the use of
smart, mathematical algorithms, it can choose the best server and strip the round-trip-time. Thus, the time calculated
is normally less than 50ms off the timeserver's.
The ntpdate program adopts the time from the ntp-server specified at the command line.
$ /etc/init.d/ntp stop
Stopping NTP server: ntpd.
$ ntpdate -b gate
8 Sep 18:48:58 ntpdate: step time server 192.168.42.1 offset -0.000031 sec
If you do not pass the -b parameter, it will accelerate or decelerate the lokal clock until it's correct, in
order to avoid time steps. This way one run of ntpdate can take hours. So, if you want to run
ntpdate on system startup (e.g. from /etc/init.d/ntpdate), be sure to set the -b
BTW: ntpdate cannot change the system time, while there is a ntpd process active on the same host. If ntpdate aborts
with the following message:
8 Sep 18:50:42 ntpdate: the NTP socket is in use, exiting
you most likely forgot to turn off ntpd.
The (x)ntpd [ (Experimental) Network Time Protocol Demon ] is for permanent synchronization. Due to its mathematical
design features, it gives you precision in the range of nanoseconds while using minimal network bandwith. It will
Normally you've got one timeserver in your LAN, which synchronizes its time with public Internet timeservers and
provides it to all of your local clients.
- query several ntp-servers or other devices (e.g. DCF-77 or GPS receivers) in special intervals,
- deduct any delays caused by the network,
- sort its time sources by reliability,
- correct minor deviations by ascending or descending the local clock, in order to avoid time steps.
- adjust the local clock's speed permanently, so that it can stay synchronous even without a network if the room
- provide its time to the network over ntp, selectably
- on request (unicast),
- as regular brodcasting in your local network segment, or
- as multicast stream to a number of subscribers
- offer mutual authentification to prevent damages caused by unauthorized servers or clients.
Here's the configfile /etc/ntp.conf for all clients:
server 192.168.42.1 burst
and here's the configfile /etc/ntp.conf for the server:
- The driftfile stores cognitions about the local clock's inaccuracies, so that they're still available after
restarting ntpd or rebooting the machine.
- The host 192.168.42.1 serves as your timeserver in unicast-mode.
- It will be queried in burst-mode, which vitally speeds up the measurement of reliabilities and network
delays. As a consequence thereof the network load for the first 30 seconds and after each network connection loss will
be 8 times the usual, but, well, on a 100Mbit/s LAN you won't notice this.
server ntp2.ptb.de minpoll 4 maxpoll 10
server xlink1.xlink.net minpoll 4 maxpoll 10
server willow.fernuni-hagen.de minpoll 4 maxpoll 10
server ws-lei1.win-ip.dfn.de minpoll 4 maxpoll 10
server tuminfo1.informatik.tu-muenchen.de minpoll 4 maxpoll 10
server NTP.HEH.Uni-Oldenburg.DE minpoll 4 maxpoll 10
server ntps2.gwdg.de minpoll 4 maxpoll 10
server ntp.rz.tu-harburg.de minpoll 4 maxpoll 10
server ntp.nml.csiro.au minpoll 4 maxpoll 10
server ntp0.fau.de minpoll 4 maxpoll 10
server clock.tl.fukuoka-u.ac.jp minpoll 4 maxpoll 10
server goodtime.ijs.si minpoll 4 maxpoll 10
server tick.usno.navy.mil minpoll 4 maxpoll 10
server time-nw.nist.gov minpoll 4 maxpoll 10
- the minpoll--parameter tells ntpd the time interval to query a server at the first time and after each
network failure. Possible values are:
- the maxpoll-parameter tells ntpd the time interval to query the servers when the connection's been
fluent for some time.
The ntpq command supplies you with a shell for status queries about a given timeserver. If you don't provide
a timeserver on the command line, it will use localhost.
addvars associations authenticate cl clearvars
clocklist clockvar cooked cv debug
delay exit help host hostnames
keyid keytype lassociations lopeers lpassociations
lpeers mreadlist mreadvar mrl mrv
ntpversion opeers passociations passwd peers
poll pstatus quit raw readlist
readvar rl rmvars rv showvars
timeout version writelist writevar
The most interesting of those commands is peers. You can also reach it directly (that is, without using the
shell), if you specify the -p-parameter on the command line.
$ ntpq -pn gate
remote refid st t when poll reach delay offset jitter
*18.104.22.168 .PTB. 1 u 519 1024 377 44.966 0.762 0.689
-22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 2 u 80 1024 377 53.898 -4.443 8.575
+188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 2 u 83 1024 377 74.690 0.338 0.024
#220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 3 u 72 1024 377 46.868 1.128 0.142
#22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 3 u 84 1024 377 61.069 -3.552 0.441
-188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 2 u 77 1024 377 129.458 -11.106 11.891
-220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 2 u 71 1024 367 46.386 1.660 1.055
22.214.171.124 0.0.0.0 0 u - 1024 0 0.000 0.000 4000.00
+126.96.36.199 .ATOM. 1 u 81 1024 371 348.563 1.065 0.051
188.8.131.52 .GPS. 1 u 12h 1024 0 0.000 0.000 4000.00
-184.108.40.206 .GPS. 1 u 133 1024 357 385.072 -7.701 0.799
-220.127.116.11 .GPS. 1 u 1106 1024 376 83.967 -3.170 0.057
-18.104.22.168 .PSC. 1 u 27 1024 377 157.448 11.293 10.819
-22.214.171.124 .ACTS. 1 u 78 1024 377 280.552 -26.444 37.160
Explanations: The table shows one row for each server configured. The meaning of the columns is as follows:
|The first character
||tells the quality of the server:
||The best source. Its time is currently taken as reference.
|acceptable qualities, sorted descending
||no answer or depending on the local host
||the IP address or (if ntpq was called without the -n parameter) the hostname of
||the IP address or (if ntpq was called without the -n parameter) the hostname of
||the stratum, that is, how many hops the server is away from a primary time source (e.g. an atomic
||the connection type:
||how many seconds ago the server was queried the last time
||the interval (seconds) to query the server.
||the reachability of the server in octal digits, from 0 (never) to 377 (always).
|some statistical values (in milliseconds). The less, the better.
The ntpdc tool is for remote configuration of a running ntp server.
In 1996, Dr. Mills explained, that everybody, who does not need the precision of NTP, can limit the NTP-protocol to
single server requests. He called this method "Simple Network Time Protocol" (SNTP) and documented it in RFC2030 .
Windows (2000, 2003 and XP) come with two SNTP-clients:
- w32time is a system service, which automatically copies the time in given intervals.
- net time is a program to manually request the time and to configure w32time.
|net time /setsntp:server1,server2,...
||to select the timeservers
|net time /querysntp
||displays the selected timeservers
|net stop w32time
net start w32time
|stopps and starts the regular queries to the timeservers.
OS/2, MS-DOS, Windows 95, 98, NT3 and NT4 come with the NET program, with with you can copy the time from
windows-hosts, that have server services (netbios-ssn, TCP-Port 139) enabled, over the SMB-protocol.
C:\PROGRA~1> net time \\mausi /set /yes
Attention: Starting with Windows 2000, the NET-command changed from SMB- to the SNT-Protocol.
Since samba 3.0, the net-command is part of the samba distribution.
If you are looking for a standalone version of NET TIME , you will find a solution in
$ nettime //mausi
Current system time set to Wed Sep 4 21:07:18 2002
Here is a statically linked binary for Linux:
nettime2.bz2 [285 kB]
and here its source code as samba 2.0.7 module:
nettime.c [8 kB]
Linux places the kernel livetime (5 bytes, in hundreth of a second) in the options at the end of any tcp header.
$ tcpdump host mausi & telnet mausi 22
tcpdump: listening on eth0
12:16:15.513290 hamster.jfranken.de.ssh > gate.jfranken.de.2156:
P 3146288727:3146288759(32) ack 3154615717 win 8576
<nop,nop,timestamp 104273773 49599748> (DF) [tos 0x10]
12:22:27 up 12 days, 1:38, 4 users, load average: 0.00, 0.00, 0.00
Professor David L. Mills described the Internet Clock Service (see RFC778 ) in 1981. It would transmit the time (without the date) in milliseconds since midnight via
ICMP packets of type 14 (see RFC792 ). For this
purpose, W. Richard Stevens wrote the icmptime program, which compares the local time to a remote host's.
It's available at ftp://ftp.uu.net/published/books/stevens.tcpipv1.tar.Z
RFC781 from the year 1981 describes, that one
could already do that in the IP header. As far as I know, there hasn't been a practical implementation of this service.